Do you know a visit to your doctor when you are not Ill is one of the ways of staying healthy

The essence of regular medical checkup is to evaluate the current health status, screen for diseases or risk factors and provide preventive counseling depending on the age of the individual.  This helps to prevent onset of disease or worsening of an existing one. When diseases are in their early stages and detected early, if adequate diagnosis and treatment are available, there is a good chance it can be cured.

In preventive healthcare, measures are taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

Here are a few screenings for women at different ages:
Blood pressure: Have your blood pressured at least every once every two years if it is in the healthy range (under 120/80) or once a year if it is above normal (between 120/80 and 139/89).

  • Cervical cancer: A Pap smear is recommended every three years for women 21-65 who have a cervix. At age 30 a pap test and HPV test every 5 years is an option. If you are 65 or older, ask your doctor or nurse if you need to keep having Pap tests.
  • Diabetes screening: Diabetes may run in families or be linked to certain lifestyle factors. You should be tested if you have any of these risk factors:


  1. Previous abnormal glucose screening results
    3. High blood pressure
    4. High cholesterol
    5. History of gestational diabetes or a baby weighing more than 9 pounds at birth
  • Bone density: Get this test at least once at age 65 or after. Talk to your doctor or nurse about getting tested if you’re younger than 65 and about repeat testing.
  • Breast cancer: Mammography every two years for women ages 50-74. If you are 75 or older, ask your doctor or nurse if you need to continue having mammograms.
  • Colorectal cancer:This screening is recommended for women ages 50-75. Talk to your doctor about which screening test, (fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy) or combination of tests, is best for you and how often you need it and if you should continue having these tests after 75.
  • HIV/AIDS: Get tested for HIV/AIDS at least once after age 20, or earlier if you are at high risk for being infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. Discuss further testing with your doctor.
  • Lipid profile: Starting at age 20, women at increased risk for developing heart disease should have regular cholesterol tests.

*Sexually Transmitted Infections: Get tested for chlamydia yearly through age 24 if you are sexually active or pregnant. After age 25, get tested for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases if you are at increased risk for getting a sexually transmitted infection.

You need to stay ahead of diseases by warding them off before they even start.

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Every year, on the 14th of November, the world diabetes day is celebrated worldwide. The theme for this year’s world diabetes day is “The family and diabetes”.

The primary aim of the World Diabetes Day and World Diabetes Month 2018–19 campaign is to raise awareness of the impact that diabetes has on the family and to promote the role of the family in the management, care, prevention and education of the condition.

There are three main focus areas:

Discover diabetes
Prevent diabetes
Manage diabetes
Detecting diabetes early involves the family too

One in every two people with diabetes is undiagnosed. Early diagnosis and treatment is key to helping prevent or delay life-threatening complications. If type 1 diabetes is not detected early, it can lead to serious disability or death. Know the signs and symptoms to protect yourself and your family.

Preventing type 2 diabetes involves the family too
Many cases of type 2 diabetes can be prevented by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Reducing your family’s risk starts at home.

When a family eats healthy meals and exercises together, all family members benefit and encourage behaviours that could help prevent type 2 diabetes in the family.

If you have diabetes in your family, learn about the risks, the warning signs to look out for and what you can do to prevent diabetes and its complications.

Families need to live in an environment that supports healthy lifestyles and helps them to prevent type 2 diabetes.

Caring for my diabetes involves my family too

Managing diabetes requires daily treatment, regular monitoring, a healthy lifestyle and ongoing education. Family support is key. All health professionals should have the knowledge and skills to help individuals and families manage diabetes. Education and ongoing support should be accessible to all individuals and families to help manage diabetes. Essential diabetes medicines and care must be accessible and affordable for every family.


Culled from international diabetes federation

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Preventing the Spread of Infectious

Decrease your risk of infecting yourself or others:

  • Wash your hands often. This is especially important before and after preparing food, before eating and after using the toilet.
  • Get vaccinated. Immunization can drastically reduce your chances of contracting many diseases. Keep your recommended vaccinations up-to-date.
  • Use antibiotics sensibly. Take antibiotics only when prescribed. Unless otherwise directed, or unless you are allergic to them, take all prescribed doses of your antibiotic, even if you begin to feel better before you have completed the medication.
  • Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection. Don’t go to work or class if you’re vomiting, have diarrhea or are running a fever.
  • Be smart about food preparation. Keep counters and other kitchen surfaces clean when preparing meals. In addition, promptly refrigerate leftovers. Don’t let cooked foods remain at room temperature for an extended period of time.
  • Disinfect the ‘hot zones’ in your residence. These include the kitchen and bathroom — two rooms that can have a high concentration of bacteria and other infectious agents.
  • Practice safer sex. Use condoms. Get tested for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and have your partner get tested— or, abstain altogether.
  • Don’t share personal items. Use your own toothbrush, comb or razor blade. Avoid sharing drinking glasses or dining utensils.
  • Travel wisely. Don’t fly when you’re ill. With so many people confined to such a small area, you may infect other passengers in the plane. And your trip won’t be comfortable, either. Depending on where your travels take you, talk to your doctor about any special immunizations you may need.

With a little common sense and the proper precautions, you can avoid infectious diseases and avoid spreading them.

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Welcome back, by now you should have read all we have previously discussed on fertility (insert links). You are also probably wondering what the correlation between weight and fertility is. Hang on, we will delve in to it just about now.


Many underweight, overweight and obese women have no problem getting pregnant but some might have problems conceiving, most often due to ovulation problems (failure to release eggs from the ovaries).

Body mass index for women

Being underweight often causes irregular menstrual cycles and may cause ovulation to stop altogether. Underweight women should work with their doctor to understand the cause of this situation, and develop strategies to correct it. Obesity may lead to irregular menstrual cycles and ovulation. However, obese women with normal cycles have a lower pregnancy rate than women with a normal weight, so ovulation is not the only issue. A visit to a health care professional before getting pregnant can help identify other disorders related to obesity that can impact pregnancy such as thyroid disease, insulin resistance and diabetes.



There is good evidence that obesity lowers the success rate of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Studies have shown lower pregnancy rates in obese women; they are also at an increased risk for developing pregnancy induced (gestational) diabetes and high blood pressure (preeclampsia). Obese women have a higher chance of delivering their baby via Caesarean section. Children of obese mothers are at an increased risk of some birth defects and having a high birth weight.


Obesity in men may be associated with changes in testosterone levels and other hormones important for reproduction. Low sperm counts and low sperm motility (movement) have been found more often in overweight and obese men than in normal-weight men.


You should first consult with a healthcare provider. He or she will consider all factors, including your age and any other infertility factors before making a recommendation about whether you should try to lose weight or not.



PCOS is a very common condition in young women. Not all women with PCOS are overweight or obese, but many women with PCOS have signs of insulin resistance and/or obesity. A low-calorie diet and exercise may lead to weight loss, regular menstrual cycles, and ovulation. However, women with PCOS may require additional treatment to get pregnant, including medications to decrease insulin resistance. These women should seek the assistance of an infertility specialist.

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October is breast cancer awareness month, a worldwide annual campaign involving thousands of organisations, to highlight the burden of breast cancer. In honour of the breast cancer awareness month, we are giving this helpful guide about breast cancer.


Breast cancer is the top cancer in women worldwide and is increasing particularly in developing countries where majority of cases are diagnosed in late stages.

1 in 8 women will be diagnosed of breast cancer in their lifetime.

Early detection in order to improve breast cancer outcome and survival remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control.

Risk Factors:

  • Has abnormal genes, such as mutated BRCA-1, BRCA-2, or PALB-2 genes
  • Began her menstrual period before age 12 or began menopause after age 55
  • Used hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen and progesterone over a long period of time.
  • Has a family history of breast cancer, colorectal cancer or ovarian cancer
  • Has a personal history of ovarian cancer
  • Is currently using or has recently used birth control pills
  • Has never had children, or had her first child after age 30
  • Smokes or uses tobacco

You might be at an increased risk of breast cancer if you are a woman or man who:

  • Is overweight or obese
  • Is not physically active
  • Is over age 40
  • Has already had cancer in one breast
  • Has a family history of ovarian cancer
  • Has had radiation therapy close to his or her chest


Don’t wait for symptoms to appear. Get screened according to guidelines. If you do notice any of the following symptoms, talk with your healthcare professional:

  • A lump, hard knot or thickening in the breast
  • A lump under your arm
  • A change in the size or shape of your breast
  • Nipple pain, tenderness or discharge, including bleeding
  • Itchiness, scales, soreness or rash on nipple
  • A nipple turning inward or inverted
  • A change in skin colour and texture (dimpling, puckering, or redness)
  • A breast that feels warm or swollen


  • If you have babies, breastfeed them
  • Limit alcohol consumption
  • Exercise daily for 30 – 60 minutes
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Do not smoke, if you do quit.


  • In your 20s and 30s, have a clinical breast exam (CBE) by a healthcare professional at least every three years
  • Beginning at age 40, have an annual CBE and mammogram
  • If you are at high risk, talk with your healthcare professional about beginning annual mammograms at a younger age and/or having a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • If you have a family history of breast cancer, talk to your health care professional about genetic testing
  • When you reach menopause, talk with your healthcare professional about whether you should have hormone replacement therapy
  • Know what is normal for your breasts. (Breast self-exam is one way you can do this). If you notice changes, see your healthcare professional right away.