Infertility is failure to get pregnant even after twelve months of unprotected sexual intercourse. Many factors can leads to male infertility, such as anatomical, genetic, and environmental causes. In many cases, the underlying cause of infertility cannot be determined. You need to consider undergoing formal assessments and tests for better clinical diagnosis.

Male Infertility Symptoms

You may experience one or more of the following symptoms:

• Reduced sexual desire
• Difficulty in maintaining an erection
• Pain or swelling in the testicle area
• Difficulty in ejaculation
• Decreased facial and body hair, and abnormal breast growth or hormonal abnormality

Visit El-rapha hospital to get yourself evaluated for these symptoms. Sometimes there are no apparent signs and symptoms of male infertility. You may not experience any issues with sexual activity, erection or ejaculation, and the only symptom you will have is the inability to conceive a child.

Male Infertility Problems/Causes

Male fertility includes producing enough healthy sperms, their transportation with semen, and it also needs the right temperature of the scrotum to carry healthy sperms.

Some of the leading causes of infertility are:

Sperm disorders

The most common problem associated with male infertility is sperm disorders. These are:

• Decreased sperm count

• Inability to produce sperms 

• Sperms may not be grown fully

• The failure of the sperms to move the right way

Sperm disorders can be hereditary or can be the result of bad lifestyle choices. Drug usage, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, emotional stress, and depression can result in sperm related disorders. Also, any congenital disability or damage to the reproductive system may result in low sperm count.


Varicoceles are swollen veins of the scrotum that causes infertility. This results due to the blockage of blood flow to the scrotum, leading to difficulty in temperature regulation. The warm temperature does not favor the production of sperms resulting in low sperm count.

Varicocele can be treated, which helps to improve sperm number and function, and this may also improve the potential outcome of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF.

Immunity related infertility

Though it is not a common cause of infertility, sometimes your body creates antibodies that attack your own sperms. These antibodies affect the functionality of sperms, which makes it difficult for them to fertilize the egg.

Ejaculation issues

During orgasm, if semen enters the bladder instead of going out through the penis, it is called retrograde ejaculation. Various health problems can cause retrograde ejaculation, such as surgery, medication, spinal injuries, or diabetes. Generally, in retrograde ejaculation sperm count is normal and can be retrieved and used for assisted reproductive techniques.

Blockage of sperm transporting tubules

Some defects can block the tubes that carry sperms. This blockage can occur due to repeated infections, injury due to surgery, swelling, or it can be an inherited condition. This blockage can prevent the sperm from leaving the body for fertilization.

Hormonal Imbalance

Any hormonal abnormality affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenal glands can cause infertility. The inability to produce an adequate amount of testosterone can lead to a reduced number of healthy sperms.

Chromosomal defects

An inherited disorder can result in abnormal development of male reproductive organs. Some of the genetic syndromes causing infertility are Klinefelter’s syndrome, Kallmann’s syndrome, or cystic fibrosis.


Certain medications can impair the function, structure, and production of sperms. Long term use of steroids, cancer medication (chemotherapy), antifungal medications, and medications advised for arthritis and depression can cause infertility.

Environmental causes

Overexposure to industrial chemicals, heavy metals, or radiation may contribute to your reduced sperm count. Increased scrotal temperature due to tight underpants can also be the reason for infertility.

Lifestyle choices

Tobacco smoking or drinking alcohol can lead to erectile dysfunction or decreased sperm production. Usage of drugs like marijuana or cocaine can reduce the quality and production of your sperms. Emotional stress and depression can lead to sexual dysfunction. Excessive weight or obesity can also be the reason for infertility.

Male Infertility Diagnosis

The diagnosis of male infertility can be a complicated process. Getting yourself evaluated from a physician, specialized in male infertility can help you with better diagnosis. The method of diagnosis starts with history and physical examination.

History and Physical examination

Your health care provider will take a detailed history of your health and any previous surgeries. You will be asked about any childhood diseases, current health problems, any medications you are taking, which might be causing infertility. You will also be assessed for exposure to any environmental or lifestyle-related causes leading to infertility. You will be asked if you are facing any difficulties with sexual functioning. Physical examination includes examining your reproductive organs. Here you will be assessed for varicocele or other physical abnormalities.

Semen analysis

This is a routine lab test in which semen is collected in a sterile tube, and the sample is studied. The quality of the sperm is analyzed by studying sperm volume, sperm count, movement, concentration, and structure. Low sperms or no sperms indicate blockage of the ejaculatory duct, which can be corrected through surgery.

Testicular biopsy

This test is done when your semen analysis shows low sperm count or no sperms. A needle biopsy is taken to check for the presence of healthy sperms. This helps to diagnose if there is any blockage, and also these sperms can be used in the process of assisted reproduction.

Hormone evaluation

Testosterone and other hormones are responsible for the production of healthy sperms. Hormone evaluation also helps the doctor to rule out if you are suffering from any other underlying health problem.

Male Infertility treatment

Treatment of male infertility mainly depends on the possible causes. Many issues can be treated with medication and surgery. This helps in reversing the cause of infertility and achieving conception naturally.

Nonsurgical procedures

Infertility caused due to abnormalities of hormones, immunity, retrograde ejaculation, or genital tract infection can be corrected by using medications. If the drugs don’t seem to help, you can opt for assisted reproductive techniques (ART’s) to achieve conception.

Surgical procedures

Condition like varicocele can be treated by minor outpatient surgery called varicocelectomy. Any blockage causing azoospermia can also be corrected using minor surgeries.

Treatment options for unknown causes of infertility

Sometimes the cause of infertility may not be known or is non-specific. During such conditions, an experienced doctor can help you to decide which treatment can work for you. With the latest developments, Assisted Reproductive Treatment (ART) offers powerful treatment options. These treatments have made it possible to attain pregnancy even when men have low sperm count.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

In this method, sperms are directly injected into the female partner’s uterus during ovulation. This method often works for low sperm count or in conditions like retrograde ejaculation.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In this procedure, sperms are mixed with eggs of the female partner in a Petri dish in a lab. This allows retrieval of matured eggs and their fertilization. After 3 to 5 days, fertilized eggs are placed back in the uterus. IVF can be the best treatment option in men with severe oligospermia.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

It is a form of IVF used in the treatment of severe male infertility. In this, a single sperm is injected into an egg through a tiny needle. The fertilized egg is then transferred to the female partner’s uterus.

Final Words

You may find it challenging to accept male infertility. As mentioned above in many cases, male infertility can be treated. Consulting a skilled infertility doctor and getting evaluated can help you to overcome infertility. Right diagnosis and treatment can make it possible to achieve pregnancy and take home a healthy baby.


Visitor information

To contact a patient or for patient room information, call +234 806 502 8060 , +234 806 502 8060

Visiting hours

General: 8 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. Family members with an ID badge have 24-hour access to the hospital.


  • El-Rapha Hospitals and Diagnostics Plot #930 Salihu Iliyasu Street, Life Camp, Abuja, Nigeria.
PCOS treatment in Abuja


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a hormonal disorder that affects millions of women around the world. Over a hundred thousand cases of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome occur each year in Nigeria. A large percentage of this number will however remain undiagnosed. This is one of the reasons why the entire month of September is designated to increase awareness about Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome popularly called PCOS.  

       PCOS affects a woman’s hormonal levels. It causes the ovaries to produce higher than normal amounts of the male hormone androgen. This affects ovulation and may make it difficult for the woman to get pregnant. Symptoms of PCOS include:

  • Irregular periods
  • Increased hair growth including facial hair.
  • Weight gain etc.

       Early diagnosis of PCOS may reduce the risk of long-term complications. The exact cause of PCOS is unknown but medical experts have linked genetics and insulin resistance amongst others to excess production of the male hormone androgen.

       There is currently no cure for PCOS, doctors focus on treating the symptoms of each individual patient. PCOS may lead to weight gain or obesity. Weight loss and physical exercise and maintaining a healthy diet are very important aspects of treating PCOS. Medications such as birth control pills and anti-diabetic medication are also used to treat Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

       A study states that 70%-80% with PCOS have fertility issues. While Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a common cause of infertility, it does not always mean women with it cannot have children. There are different options available to women with PCOS. Your gynaecologist can always educate you on fertility and treatment options regarding PCOS.  Regular visits to your gynaecologists may increase chances of early detection. There is no special treatment centre for PCOS, a good fertility clinic in Abuja handle PCOS cases effectively.

 Make regular visits to your gynaecologist a norm.     

Surrogacy in Abuja


In 1984, Dr. Oladapo Ashiru and his team successfully delivered the first baby via In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Nigeria. This was six years after the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, the first baby in the world conceived via IVF. Over six million babies has been conceived using IVF. It is often looked upon as a last resort, when other forms of ART (Assisted Reproductive Techniques), has failed.


In Vitro Fertilization or IVF as it is more commonly referred to is a form of assisted reproductive technique. IVF helps with fertilization, embryo development and implantation. In IVF, fertilization takes place outside the body. The ovum (egg) is extracted from the female. A sperm sample is retrieved from the male also. The egg and the sperm sample is then manually combined in a laboratory. Once fertilization takes place and the embryo has developed to a certain stage, the embryo is the transferred to the uterus and in most cases normal development takes place and the female gives birth to a perfectly healthy baby.

IVF may be considered if either partners have been diagnosed with;

  • This is when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows in other places in the body outside the womb
  • Low sperm count
  • Antibody problems that harm sperm or eggs
  • Inability of sperm to penetrate or survive in the cervical mucus
  • Poor egg quality
  • An unexplained fertility problem etc.

In Nigeria tubal factors and low sperm count are the leading causes of infertility. One in four Nigerian couples experience infertility.

In earlier times children conceived through the IVF procedure were often referred to as “test tube babies”. One of the myths was that babies born via this procedure were often not “normal”. This is completely false.


IVF Success Rate

While the success rate with IVF is a little below 50%, this reduces as the female ages, the babies delivered are healthy and normal. To increase the chances of pregnancy, Doctors transfer 3-10 eggs back into the uterus depending on the age of the female, quality of the eggs etc.  Advances in technology has greatly improved the chances of IVF procedures making it safer and an option for couples finding it difficult to conceive.

Consult us at EL RAPHA HOSPITALS AND DIAGNOSTICS  which is on of the best fertility hospital in Nigeria today as we have a medical team of professionals that will offer guidance, support and professionalism should you opt for an IVF procedure.


To contact a patient or for patient room information, call: (+234) 909 888 9013, 90998889015

General: 8 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. Family members with an ID badge have 24-hour access to the hospital.


  • El-Rapha Hospitals and Diagnostics Plot #930 Salihu Iliyasu Street, Life Camp, Abuja, Nigeria.


Stroke  is a sudden interruption in blood supply to the brain. This simply means that, for some reasons, blood suddenly stops flowing into the brain as it should, depriving the brain of oxygen and nutrient. This could be caused by an abrupt blockage of arteries that channels blood to the brain or bleeding into brain tissue when a blood vessel bursts.

When this happens, the brain cells start to die within minutes.  A stroke is therefore, a medical emergency, which requires prompt treatment in other to minimize brain damage and potential complications. If you suspect someone around you is having a stroke, here is how to confirm.

*Tell the person to smile .If the face droops to one side, it is most likely a stroke.

*Try to raise both arms; if one arm drifts downwards or is unable to raise one arm, call for emergency.

*Dialogue with the person. If you notice a slur in the speech, a stroke might be on its way.

*Ask the person basic questions; Stroke patients usually encounter confusions and  difficulty remembering and understanding speech.

*Hold up fingers and ask the patient to count. Blurred vision, doubled vision or blackened vision are signs of stroke.

*Try to make the person work a short distance. Sudden dizziness, loss of balance and loss of coordination depicts a stroke attack.

If you observe any of the above signs, please call for emergency immediately. Engage the person in a calm and reassuring conversation to keep the brain cells active and the patient conscious. Make sure they are breathing properly and keep them warm. Do not give them anything to  eat or drink and observe conditions to report to medical personnel when they arrive.

Stroke is avoidable, as well as many other conditions that could lead to medical emergencies. Finally, to prevent stroke, eat healthy, exercise daily, monitor your blood pressure and sugar level, and avoid excessive smoking and drinking. El-Rapha hospital and Diagnostics cares about you and your health. Book for and appointment to see a doctor today, take preventive measures and avoid Stroke.

egg frozening Abuja


Cryopreservation is a welcome fertility technology that has taken the weight of the pressure of the ever running ‘’biological clock’’ off women.


This process also known as cryopreservation involves freezing unfertilized eggs harvested from your ovaries in order to be used at a later time. This is done via a process called vitirification. As with other aspects of life, cryopreservation provides a promising second option for women who want to undergo medical treatments proven to be toxic to their eggs or ovaries ; same for those that could delay childbearing e.g chemotherapy. Also, women who for some non-medical reason want to delay getting pregnant.

The best part about cryopreservation is that the eggs are not affected by the age at which she comes back to use them. It is however important to note that the age a woman chooses to freeze her eggs greatly determines the success of this technology. Although this is up for debate, it is advised that this is done by women 35 years or younger.


The first step in your journey of freezing your eggs is having a consultation with a fertility expert so as to assess your fertility and overall health. You will be prescribed a few days of hormone injections and you will make a few short trips to the hospital for proper ‘monitoring’.

In a typical cycle, your ovaries produce one egg but these injections are meant to stimulate your ovaries to produce multiple eggs in one menstrual cycle. Your response to these medications will be tracked by blood tests and transvaginal ultrasound.


The egg removal or harvesting procedure is scheduled once your eggs are mature; your doctor inserts a needle through your vaginal wall and retrieves several eggs from your ovary. This is done under sedation and is painless with no cuts and stitches. The process of the freezing ends here for you but your eggs are taken to the laboratory where they are immediately frozen in a state-of-the-art laboratory specifically designed for cryopreservation.


Some people have frozen their eggs for as long as ten years and even more, long-term storage of frozen eggs does not result in any decrease in quality.

The eggs are thawed, injected with a sperm to achieve fertilization, and transferred to the uterus as embryos whenever the patient is ready to attempt pregnancy, perhaps in years to come.


As earlier mentioned, women are advised to freeze their eggs because the quality of the eggs is not affected by the age at which she chooses to use them so it is therefore safe to say that the chances of older women achieving future pregnancy at the time of freezing is slimmer than in younger women.

For further information on freezing your eggs at our facility, please call:  09098889013

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ICSI is a form of assisted reproductive technology usually recommended when there is a sperm problem.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg.

During the process of natural conception, a large number of sperm surrounds the egg and many attach to the outside, but only one sperm penetrates and fertilizes each egg.

In standard IVF, embryologists mimic natural conception by adding a large number of sperm to the dish containing the egg.

However, in ICSI the embryologist selects sperm based on their activity and appearance. A single sperm is then injected into each mature egg using specialised equipment that allows the egg and sperm fertilise and becomes a zygote.


Barring the method of fertilisation that involves direct injection of the sperm cell to the egg, the process is the same as the conventional IVF.

From hormonal stimulation to egg recovery, producing the sperm sample and embryo replacement.

On the day the procedure is performed, the embryologist carefully removes the outer cells from each egg, using an enzyme normally produced by sperm. This enables the embryologist to see the inside of the egg using a high powered microscope and also assess if the egg is ‘mature’. He then picks out individual live sperm, of normal appearance and injects one into each egg, using a special glass needle.

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ICSI is usually of no benefit to those without a sperm problem but when it has been ascertained that there is a sperm problem or the sperm to be used was surgically retrieved then ICSI is recommended.

In our centre, we also advise couples to undergo ICSI if they have had standard IVF and there was a very low fertilisation rate, or no fertilisation at all.  This occurs occasionally, even if there is no obvious sperm problem. If this happens, ICSI could be a likely alternative.

IVF Process: 4 Steps to Getting Pregnant

Are you having problems getting pregnant? Then you may wonder if in vitro fertilization (IVF) is right for you in one of the best hospital in Nigeria. Many women find pregnancy success after trying IVF. If you are ready to learn more, check out the four primary steps you can expect during the in vitro fertilization process.

Step 1: Ovulation Induction
Before and during the in vitro fertilization process, your fertility specialist will monitor your ovaries and the timing of the egg release. The doctor will make sure that your ovaries are producing eggs, and that your hormone levels are normal, among other procedures.

Most women take fertility medicines or hormones at this time to stimulate the ovaries to produce one or more eggs. Having several eggs available for IVF will increase the chances that you will get pregnant.

If you cannot produce any eggs, talk to your doctor about donor eggs for the IVF process.

Step 2: Egg Retrieval
During this step in the IVF process, pain medication is given to reduce any discomfort. Then a very thin needle is passed through the upper vaginal wall. With the use of vaginal ultrasound, fluid is removed from the follicles under gentle suction.

Immediately after aspiration of the follicle, the oocyte (egg) is isolated from the follicular fluid. The egg is placed in a culture dish containing nutrient media and then transferred to the incubator.

Step 3: Fertilization
The next step of the IVF process is the fertilization of the egg. A sperm sample is secured, either from your partner or a donor, and the most active sperm is mixed with the egg in a special chamber. Sometimes the sperm is directly injected into the egg. Then, the sperm and egg are placed in an incubator and monitored to make sure that a healthy embryo develops.

Step 4: Embryo Transfer and Implantation
The final step of the IVF process is the embryo transfer. First, the embryos are examined to select the healthiest ones for transfer. To transfer the embryo(s), a speculum is placed into your vagina and the embryo(s) are transferred via a small plastic tube placed through the cervix into the uterine cavity.  After the IVF process is complete, bed rest is often advised for around 24 hours.


Blood glucose control is key to having a healthy baby

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. In other words, gestational diabetes is diabetes detected during pregnancy.

Most women are screened for gestational diabetes at 24-28 weeks gestation period during antenatal care. Sometimes, your doctor may screen you earlier if they have concerns. GDM is caused by hormonal changes associated inherently with actual pregnancy and can affect between 5% and 15%; globally, 1 in 7 women suffer from it.


Patients do not usually notice any symptoms of gestational diabetes because the routine tests performed during pregnancy help identify the condition very early on.

Nevertheless, if it is not detected early, then the patient could notice symptoms associated with increased sugar levels (hyperglycaemia) such as an excessive weight gain by gestational age, thirst and increased urge to urinate.

RISK FACTORS * If you had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy
• If you’ve had a baby born weighing over 4kg
• If you are obese or overweight
• If you have a family history of diabetes.
• If you are being treated for HIV.


1. It increases your risk of having type2 diabetes
2. You are more likely to have a large baby; this may cause discomfort during the last few months of pregnancy and this may lead to a cesarean section (C-section)
3. Prolonged labour

4. Pre-eclampsia

Yes. Before getting pregnant, talk to your doctor about how to reduce your risk of gestational diabetes before becoming pregnant.

• Be physically active—Get at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity five days a week.
• Eat a variety of foods that are low in fat and reduce your calorie intake per day.
• Maintain a healthy weight.


• Show up at all your prenatal visits.
• Follow your doctor’s recommendations on controlling your blood sugar. This can help reduce your risk of having a large baby.
• Stay physically active.
• Eat healthy food

You can reduce your chances of having gestational diabetes in the future by asking your doctor about type 2 diabetes prevention and care after delivery. You could also ask to see a dietitian or a diabetes educator to learn more about type 2 diabetes prevention.



Most sexually active individuals will have HPV at some point.


Some types of HPV can cause genital warts while some other different types are linked to cervical cell changes that, if not detected early, can increase a woman’s risk for cervical cancer. HPV also causes some cancers of the penis, anus, vagina, vulva, and throat. HPV infections are usually harmless, though, and most are cleared naturally by the body in a year or two.

HPV vaccines can help prevent infection from both high risk HPV types that can lead to cervical cancer and low risk types that cause genital warts. The CDC recommends all boys and girls

get the HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12, but vaccination is avail- able through age 26. The vaccine produces a stronger immune response when taken during the preteen years. For this reason, up until age 14, only two doses of the vaccine are required.


HPV is usually passed by genital-to-genital and genital-to-anal contact (even without penetration). The virus can also be transmitted by oral to genital contact, although this probably occurs less often. Studies show that male condoms can reduce HPV transmission to females, although condoms only protect the skin they cover.


A Pap test can find cell changes to the cervix caused by HPV. HPV tests find the virus and help healthcare providers know which women are at highest risk for cervical cancer. A Pap/ HPV co-test is recommended for women 30 and over. One HPV test has been approved for use as primary cervical cancer screening for women age 25 and older, followed by a Pap test for women with certain results.


There’s no treatment for the virus itself, but healthcare providers have plenty of options to treat diseases caused by HPV.


It can take weeks, months, or even years after exposure to HPV before symptoms develop or the virus is detected. This is why it is usually impossible to determine when or from whom HPV may have been contracted. A recent diagnosis of HPV does not necessarily mean anyone has been unfaithful, even in a long-term relationship spanning years.


Pregnant women with HPV almost always have natural deliveries and healthy babies—it is very rare for a newborn to get HPV from the mother.

We advise that you get vaccinated to reduce your chances of getting cervical cancer.

party culled from national cervical cancer coalition

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Everyone gets tired once in a while but when it becomes a regular occurrence and starts to interfere with living a normal life, then it is time to see your doctor.

People often do not consider fatigue a serious problem especially when it occurs in younger people but fatigue could be a symptom of an underlying health problem.

Fatigue is the feeling of lack of energy and motivation, it can be mental, physical or both. It is not the same as drowsiness but fatigue is often accompanied by the desire to sleep.

If fatigue appears suddenly or becomes more frequent, it could be related to several common medical conditions or lifestyle.

You should consult your doctor to see if you have any of the following issues.

1. Anemia: This occurs when your blood has too few red blood cells or those cells have too little hemoglobin, a protein that transports oxygen through the bloodstream. The result is a drop in energy levels.

2. Heart disease: Heart diseases can cause the heart to pump blood less efficiently and lead to fluid in the lungs. This can cause shortness of breath and reduce the oxygen supply to the heart and lungs, making you tired.

3. Hypothyroidism: An underactive thyroid gland can cause fatigue along with other symptoms such as weight gain, weakness, dry skin, feeling cold, and constipation.

4. Sleep problems: Sleep apnea is characterized by pauses in your breathing, often lasting several seconds, or shallow breathing, while you sleep. It is common among older adults and those who are overweight.

*Another sleep-related issue is an overactive bladder or enlarged prostate, which forces repeated nighttime bathroom trips. Either of these can disturb your sleep enough to leave you feeling tired the next day

5. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) :  This is a group of symptoms resulting from dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This branch of the nervous system regulates functions we don’t consciously control like sweating and blood circulation.

In people with POTS, more blood collects in the lower body when standing upright. The heart beats faster to pump it up to the brain, but with little success. The causes of POTS are unknown, but the problem is thought to lie in the communication breakdown between the brain and the cardiovascular system.

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A medical checkup can identify issues that may cause fatigue and the treatment of fatigue depends on the treatment of its underlying cause(s).

Your doctor can help diagnose and suggest possible treatments such as iron supplements for anemia, medications and machines to help sleep apnea, medications to control blood sugar, medications to regulate thyroid function, antibiotics to treat infection, vitamins, and/or recommendations for dietary changes and exercise.

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