Symptoms, Risk Factors, and Diagnosis of Endometriosis:

Endometriosis is a disorder wherein tissue that usually develops inside the uterus (endometrium) grows outside of it. Frequently it is on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, as well as the tissue around the uterus nevertheless, in exceptional situations, this can also happen in other regions of the human body. The primary signs and symptoms are pelvic discomfort in addition to infertility.

Endometriosis can have both social as well as psychological effects on has proved to be one of the main causes of infertility among women with nearly half of them suffering from, half of those afflicted get persistent pelvic pain, while in 70% discomfort transpires at the time of menstruation. Pain in the course of sex is usually prevalent. Considerably less popular symptoms consist of urinary or even bowel signs. Around 25% of females never show any signs or symptoms.

Even though the cause is not completely clear. Risk elements consist of having a family background of the disease. The parts of it bleed every month, leading to swelling as well as scarring. The growths because of it are not cancer. Medical diagnosis is normally based upon symptoms along with medical imaging. A biopsy is the surest technique of diagnosis. Additional reasons behind identical signs or Endometriosis symptoms consist of pelvic inflammatory disorder, upset bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, as well as fibromyalgia.

Tentative proof signifies that the usage of linked oral contraceptives lowers the chance of endometriosis. Physical exercise in addition to avoiding alcoholic beverages can also be preventive. You cannot find any treatment for endometriosis; however, quite a few remedies might improve symptoms. This could involve pain medications, hormonal remedies, or even surgical treatment.The suggested pain drugs are normally an NSAID like naproxen. Having a well-known part of the birth control supplement constantly or even utilizing an intrauterine device with progestogen is often helpful. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may well enhance the potential of people who definitely are infertile to get expectant. Surgical excision of endometriosis treatment can be used to cure those whose symptoms are not controllable with many other treatments.

Symptoms of endometriosis?

Some of the common endometriosis symptoms observed are as given below:

An important symptom of endometriosis is persistent pelvic pain. The pain ranges from minor to intense cramps or even stabbing pain that happens on each side of the pelvis, in the low back and the rectal region, as well as down the legs.  Some other symptoms consist of diarrhoea or constipation, persistent tiredness, feeling sick, nausea, severe headaches, low-grade fevers, severe and/or abnormal periods, and hypoglycaemia. Along with pain through menstruation, the pain of endometriosis can happen at other times of the calendar month.

There might be a pain with ovulation, pain connected with adhesions, pain due to swelling in the pelvic cavity, pain at the time of intestinal motions as well as urination when having a common physical activity such as workouts, pain from standing up or simply walking, as well as pain with intercourse. The intense pain is often connected with menstruation. Pain may also begin each week before a menstrual period, throughout or even 7 days after a menstrual period, or perhaps it may be continuous. The pain could be agonizing along with the emotional strain will take a toll.

Does Endometriosis affects infertility?

Many women with infertility are suffering from endometriosis problem. Among women with this problem, up to half may experience infertility.

Risk factors related to endometriosis?

Some of the common risk factors are listed below:

  1. Genetics and heredity

The hereditary tendency has a part in endometriosis. Daughters or simply sisters of females face a greater chance of growing endometriosis on their own; lower progesterone ranges might be hereditary, and even may possibly lead to a hormone disturbance. There is certainly an around six-fold improved occurrence in females with an afflicted first-degree family member.

  1. The environmental toxic compounds

Numerous researchers have looked into the possible link between exposure to dioxins, yet the proof is equivocal as well as prospective mechanisms are not well known. A 2004 assessment of scientific studies of dioxin together with endometriosis claimed that “the human statistics assisting the dioxin relationship are uncommon as well as conflicting” including a 2009 follow-up evaluation too discovered that there was clearly ‘insufficient evidence’ in favor of a connection between dioxin direct exposure as well as females.

Diagnoses of endometriosis?

The medical diagnosis of endometriosis includes a health background as well as a physical exam which could guide the medical care specialist to determine endometriosis. Even though physicians might sense the endometrial growths in the course of a pelvic examination, and also these types of signs and symptoms might be symptoms of endometriosis, a diagnosis simply cannot be established by physical examination only. Using pelvic ultrasound could detect its significant cysts (generally known as endometriomas). Nevertheless, smaller sized implants simply cannot be visualized with ultrasound procedure.

Laparoscopy, a surgical treatment in which a digital camera is employed to peek inside the stomach cavity, is the sole method to formally detect it, Since it enables lesion visualization unless of course, the lesion is noticeable from the outside, e.g. an endometriotic nodule in the vagina. When the growths are not detectable, a biopsy might be taken to find out the diagnosis. Surgical treatment for diagnoses, in addition, provides for surgical treatment of endometriosis simultaneously. An individual with Phase I endometriosis could have a little disorder as well as extreme pain, whereas an individual with Phase IV, that might have a severe disorder with no pain or maybe the other way round.

Surgical treatment

Traditional treatment method includes the excision of the endometrium adhesions, resection of endometriomas, as well as the rejuvenation of regular pelvic anatomy just as much as is achievable. Endometrioma on the ovary of the considerable size sometimes misdiagnosed since ovarian cysts- needs to be taken away surgically since hormonal therapy by itself is not going to get rid of the complete Endometrioma cyst, which could develop to serious pain from the rupturing of the cyst as well as inner bleeding. El-rapha being one of the best IVF centres in Nigeria, we utilize Laparoscopy, for medical diagnosis, and to carry out surgical treatment. It is regarded as a ‘minimally invasive’ surgical procedure since the physician tends to make minute openings (incisions) at (or around) the belly button or bottom part of the abdomen.

 Hormone therapies used to treat Endometriosis?

Some of the hormone therapies used to treat Endometriosis are given below:

  1. Progesterone or progestins: Progesterone counteracts oestrogen and even prevents the development of the endometrium. This kind of treatment helps to reduce or perhaps eradicate menstruation in a regulated as well as reversible manner. Progestins are inorganic variants of organic progesterone. A good example of a progestin is dienogest (Visanne).
  2. Hormone contraception therapy: Oral contraceptives help reduce the menstrual pain connected with endometriosis. They might work by lowering or perhaps removing menstrual flow and then giving oestrogen support. Usually, it really is an extended approach.

Danazol (Danocrine), as well as gestrinone, are suppressive steroids with a few androgenic activities. The two agents slow down the development of endometriosis yet their use stays restricted since they could cause hirsutism as well as voice changes.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone: These kinds of medicines are said to function by lowering hormone quantities. A 2010 Cochrane evaluation discovered that GnRH agonists were far better for relief from the pain in endometriosis when compared with no therapy or perhaps placebo, yet were no longer useful as compared to danazol or even intrauterine progestagen, and thus had far more unwanted side effects as compared to danazol.

Aromatase inhibitors are medicines that prevent the development of oestrogen that has grown to be of great interest for specialists who are curing endometriosis.

A few other medicines includes

  1. NSAIDs: Anti-inflammatory. These are widely used along with many other therapies. For more serious cases narcotic prescription medicines can be utilized. NSAID injections could possibly help for extreme pain or if the abdominal pain stops oral NSAID use.
  2. Opioids: Morphine sulphate capsules, as well as other opioid analgesics, work by mimicking the actions of naturally occurring pain-reducing chemicals called “endorphins”. There is actually distinct prolonged acting and even short functioning medicines which you can use alone or perhaps in collaboration to give suitable pain control.

Complications associated with endometriosis?

Problems consist of interior scarring, adhesions, pelvic cysts, chocolate cyst of ovaries, ruptured cysts, intestinal as well as a ureteral blockage as a result of pelvic adhesions. It’s associated infertility could be linked to scar growth as well as anatomical distortions as a result. Ovarian endometriosis could magnify maternity by decidualization, abscess and/or break. Thoracic endometriosis is related to repeated pneumothoraces occasionally of a menstrual period; referred to as catamenial pneumothorax

Are you suffering from infertility due to endometriosis?

Call our IVF specialist today on:  0909 888 9013, 09098889015  for a free second opinion. For more such infertility treatments follow our blog.

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– 50% off on Registration
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All you have to do is walk into our facility from the first of February and you are eligible for this massive discount!
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This is our way of saying thank you for your continuous patronage, love and support since we opened our doors on February 2, 2017.
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Losing a baby is a devastating experience. No matter how early or late into the pregnancy a woman is, the loss of a child hits incredibly hard. Recurrent miscarriages can be confusing. There is no evidence that suggests that a woman cannot go on to have a normal successful pregnancy after one, two or even three miscarriages. It is advisable to consult a fertility doctor if you have experienced a miscarriage especially if it has happened more than once. Miscarriages are sometimes caused by underlying health issues. If these issues are not treated, it could prevent future pregnancies.

       A miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy before the 20th week. Over a million cases are recorded in Nigeria each year. Some women may miscarry before they have any clue that they are pregnant. Miscarriages do not cause infertility, but a woman that has miscarried once may experience another miscarriage especially if she has an underlying health issue.

       There are two main types of miscarriages: early miscarriage and late miscarriage.

       Early miscarriage occurs during the first trimester, i.e., within the first 12 weeks of the pregnancy. Most miscarriages occur during this period. The most common cause of early miscarriage is chromosomal abnormalities with either the sperm or the egg.

       Late miscarriage happens after the first trimester (after 12 weeks), but before week 20. It happens during the second trimester of the pregnancy.

What causes a miscarriage?

  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • Uterine or cervix abnormalities
  • PCOS
  • Bacterial infections etc.

       Most early miscarriages may occur without any physical symptoms. Abdominal cramps, abdominal pains and vaginal bleeding are some symptoms that may indicate a possible miscarriage. It is important to note that these symptoms sometimes occur during a normal pregnancy and do not necessarily mean a miscarriage is inevitable. It is important to report any uncomfortable feeling or symptoms to your healthcare provider. Sudden loss of common early signs of pregnancy, for example nausea and tenderness of breasts are also possible signs of a miscarriage.

       If a woman has a health condition that is known to cause to miscarriage, very little can be done to prevent miscarriage in the first trimester. In the second and third trimester, there are higher chances of sustaining the pregnancy.

       You can make a few lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of miscarriages.

  • Always go for regular pre natal check up.
  • Avoid smoking, drugs and alcohol.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Avoid being overweight or underweight.
  • Exercise regularly
  • Limit your caffeine intake


      Secondary infertility is the inability to conceive after giving birth to at least one child before without any medical intervention. Secondary infertility can be very confusing. Most people believe that being able to conceive once or more automatically means that they would not need any help getting pregnant again. A study published in 2018 stated that secondary infertility is more common that primary fertility (where pregnancy has not occurred at all). Couples who experience secondary fertility are less likely to visit a fertility clinic or consult a fertility doctor because they believe that if they keep trying, the woman will conceive, after all they have done it before. 

Secondary infertility can be caused by the same factors responsible for primary infertility. These could be:

  • Impaired sperm production, function or delivery
  • Damage to the fallopian tube
  • Ovulation problems
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Endometriosis

       Health problems that were not present during the first pregnancy could lead to secondary infertility, such as an underlying fertility problem that has worsened over time. Age is also a major cause of secondary infertility. Fertility decreases with age. If a woman has her first child in her mid 30s and is trying to have her second child in her late 30s, the chances of secondary infertility occurring are significantly higher than those of a younger woman.

       Treatments for secondary fertility are the same for primary fertility. They include;

  • Fertility drugs and medication. This is usually the first stage of treatment for most fertility cases. In most cases, both primary and secondary infertility can be treated with fertility drugs and injections prescribed by a fertility doctor. If the underlying problem is more serious, the other forms of assisted reproductive techniques are recommended.
  • In Vitro Fertilization. This is the most common of all assisted reproductive techniques. IVF involves fertilizing the sperm and egg in lab and implanting the fertilized embryo into the uterus of the mother or surrogate.

Other ARTs includes; Intra Uterine Insemination, In Vitro Maturation, Testicular Sperm Aspiration, etc.

       Secondary infertility can be mentally stressful and draining. Most couples won’t think of visiting a fertility clinic when they experience it. It is advisable to speak to a fertility expert if you have been trying for a year (for women under the age of 35) or for six months (for women above the age of 35) to conceive, if you have had other children in the past. Delaying seeking for help could make the underlying issue worsen. It is perfectly okay to seek a little help in achieving your dream family.   

Elrapha Hospital

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

From the onset of the pandemic to socio-economical crisis that has plagued our country and the world at large, 2020 has a been a year we did not anticipate. However these issues has made us question what really matters to us as human beings. The importance of respect and understanding has never been so loudly echoed in recent history as it is in these times. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
We are faced once again with an existential threat that made us realize the importance of love, consideration and compassion. Today, December 10th commemorates the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. And on this day , our simple message to you is Love

Fertility clinics


Certain diseases can affect a woman’s ability to reproduce or get pregnant. It can be a mild issue easily treated with medications. In some cases surgery or one of the Assisted Reproductive Techniques may be required in order for the woman to get pregnant.

       Different factors can affect a woman’s reproductive health leading to one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Disruption of menstrual cycle (irregular periods)
  • Failure to ovulate
  • Poor production of eggs
  • Cancerous growth on reproductive organs

  Frequent miscarriages may also be caused by poor health. Common health problems affecting women are:

  • Endometriosis
  • Obstetric fistula
  • Polycystic Ovarian Cancer
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Uterine cancer

  Fertility clinics diagnose and offer treatment to cater for reproductive health issues affecting women. Regular visits to a gynaecologist, maintaining a healthy diet and regular exercises can greatly improve a woman’s health. 


A fertility clinic is a medical clinic that assists couples and individuals who wants to become parents but for medical reasons have not been able to through the natural course.

Fertility clinics offers Assisted Reproductive Techniques. Some of these techniques includes In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Artificial Insemination, Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), the use sperm donors or egg donors, etc. they also treat infertility related cases such as low sperm count, endometrosis, obstetric fistula. Fertility clinics often cater to males and females.

Assisted Reproductive Techniques was not accepted generally in Nigeria. This was due to traditional beliefs, religious stances and so on. Recently, it has been more accepted and more couples are seeking it out. This has led to a decrease in infertility cases and an increase in fertility clinics in Nigeria.

It is important to be careful when looking for the best fertility clinic in Nigeria. These are some things you should try to find out before committing to one;

  • The success rate. The fertility clinic should have a high success rate especially when compared to the number of cases they have handled.
  • The staff. The staff should be willing to answer as many questions as you ask as long as it does not breach confidentiality. When you call a potential fertility clinic be sure to take note of your enquiries are received.
  • The procedures they offer. Some fertility clinics in Nigeria do not offer a wide range of fertility remedies. Ensure to go for one that does. This way you would have a host of remedies to pick from.
  • The rates. While price should not be the dominant factor in choosing a fertility clinic, you should inquire about their prices. This will help you have a sense if what to expect.

Most fertility remedies are very delicate procedures. This is why you must be careful when choosing a fertility clinic in Nigeria. Choose a fertility clinic with high success rates, friendly staff and professional medical experts.

At EL-RAPHA HOSPITALS AND DIAGNOSTICS we believe you deserve only the best so we provide only the best fertility care.


While most ovarian cysts would go away on their own, some requires surgical removal. This surgery is called a Cystectomy. In Nigeria, and in most countries ovarian cysts are a common cause of hospital admissions for females.

An ovarian cyst is a fluid filled sac that forms on the surface of an ovary. It is usually non-cancerous. There are often no signs and symptoms presented by an ovarian cyst although some of them may cause pain and bleeding. Frequent visits to your gynecologist can significantly improve the chances of discovering a cyst early.

A cystectomy is performed in order to remove a more serious case of ovarian cyst. This procedure may be done via a Laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) or open surgery. it is mostly a minor surgery.

Ovarian cysts affect women of every age but older women are more likely to develop it. Family history of cancer, previous history of breast cancer and obesity also increases the risk of a female developing cysts.

Surgery may be needed to remove a cyst if;

  • The cyst does not go away after several menstrual periods
  • The cyst gets larger
  • The cyst has been causing pain.

Ovarian cysts can be caused by; hormonal problems, pregnancy and severe pelvic infections. Cysts formed during pregnancy are typically harmless. They will be monitored constantly by your gynecologist.

Obstetric fistula


Today marks the 7th annual International Day to End Obstetric Fistula. According to the United Nations Population Fund, about 100,000 women develop obstetric fistula every year. In Nigeria, almost 20,000 women develop obstetric fistula annually. However more than 400,000 women are currently living with this condition in the country as a result of poor access to hospitals and proper medical care. The United Nations Population Fund has supported free surgical repairs for over 6,000 women and girls living with fistula in Nigeria.

Obstetric Fistula is an abnormal opening between a woman’s genital tract and her urinary tract or rectum. Obstetric fistula is one of the major causes of maternal mortality especially amongst women in Asia, the Arab region and Sub-Sahara Africa. The opening can be as a result of obstructed labor. During obstructed labor the tissues between the woman’s vagina and her pubic bone are damaged by continuous pressure from the infant’s neck trapped in the birth canal. The damaged tissue later falls off leaving a hole between the vagina and urinary tract or rectum. Faeces and/or urine often leaks from this hole. Obstetric fistula may also be caused by cancer, radiation therapy or surgical complications.

Obstetric fistula can be treated mainly through surgical procedures. The success rate of surgically treating obstetric fistula is very high, above 90% in most cases. However in Nigeria over a large number of women are currently living with this condition. Women that suffer from obstetric fistula are often socially ostracized.

Obstetric fistula can be prevented by;

  • Delaying age of first pregnancy
  • Cessation of harmful traditional practices such as Female Genital Mutilation
  • Timely access to obstetric care.

No woman or girl should have to live with obstetric fistula.

At EL-RAPHA HOSPITALS AND DIAGNOSTICS we provide professional and affordable treatment for obstetric fistula. We are committed to the welfare of every woman an girl child and we join the rest of the world today in the fight against this “silent epidemic”.

Surrogacy in Abuja


In 1984, Dr. Oladapo Ashiru and his team successfully delivered the first baby via In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Nigeria. This was six years after the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, the first baby in the world conceived via IVF. Over six million babies has been conceived using IVF. It is often looked upon as a last resort, when other forms of ART (Assisted Reproductive Techniques), has failed.


In Vitro Fertilization or IVF as it is more commonly referred to is a form of assisted reproductive technique. IVF helps with fertilization, embryo development and implantation. In IVF, fertilization takes place outside the body. The ovum (egg) is extracted from the female. A sperm sample is retrieved from the male also. The egg and the sperm sample is then manually combined in a laboratory. Once fertilization takes place and the embryo has developed to a certain stage, the embryo is the transferred to the uterus and in most cases normal development takes place and the female gives birth to a perfectly healthy baby.

IVF may be considered if either partners have been diagnosed with;

  • This is when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows in other places in the body outside the womb
  • Low sperm count
  • Antibody problems that harm sperm or eggs
  • Inability of sperm to penetrate or survive in the cervical mucus
  • Poor egg quality
  • An unexplained fertility problem etc.

In Nigeria tubal factors and low sperm count are the leading causes of infertility. One in four Nigerian couples experience infertility.

In earlier times children conceived through the IVF procedure were often referred to as “test tube babies”. One of the myths was that babies born via this procedure were often not “normal”. This is completely false.


IVF Success Rate

While the success rate with IVF is a little below 50%, this reduces as the female ages, the babies delivered are healthy and normal. To increase the chances of pregnancy, Doctors transfer 3-10 eggs back into the uterus depending on the age of the female, quality of the eggs etc.  Advances in technology has greatly improved the chances of IVF procedures making it safer and an option for couples finding it difficult to conceive.

Consult us at EL RAPHA HOSPITALS AND DIAGNOSTICS  which is on of the best fertility hospital in Nigeria today as we have a medical team of professionals that will offer guidance, support and professionalism should you opt for an IVF procedure.


To contact a patient or for patient room information, call: (+234) 909 888 9013, 90998889015

General: 8 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. Family members with an ID badge have 24-hour access to the hospital.


  • El-Rapha Hospitals and Diagnostics Plot #930 Salihu Iliyasu Street, Life Camp, Abuja, Nigeria.
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