Things you must discuss with your gynaecologist!

There are intimate female issues that are difficult to discuss with friends, colleagues and even family members. Even though they look alike and all women have the same issues, some women are too shy to talk about it. This post will reassure you and give you the courage to take charge of your health without feeling embarrassed!

It is very important that you give your doctor detailed information about yourself on each visit. Unfortunately, many women forget important facts that could help their gynaecologist. let your Doctor know of any changes that have occurred in the past year. You can write down some health information so you don’t forget to discuss something during your appointment as you are putting your health at risk if you omit details that may seem minor or bothersome to you.

1.) Personal health history-

Be honest with your doctor about your personal medical history. Your doctor should at least know the following:

  • Conditions or diseases that you have suffered including STDs.
  • The last date  you see your  period
  • If you have ever had an abnormal period
  • Any medicines you are currently taking (including birth control pills, vitamins, and alternative medicines like herbal remedies and other supplements)
  • Allergies to drugs or latex

2.) Family history-

Tell your doctor about the medical history of your immediate family regarding diseases and other problems such as thyroid disorders, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure and more.

3.) How do you know if you have frequent vaginal discharge?

Each woman has a different frequency of vaginal discharge . This is completely normal and specific to each woman. It’s just part of genetics. But pay attention to how many times you have vaginal discharge in the month, and pay special attention to its color and consistency. The next time you are at your doctor or gynaecologist, tell him or her what you have discovered for detailed information.

4.) What is the normal amount of bleeding I should have during my period?

Monitor the first two days of your monthly period. It will allow you to know if  your cycles are consistent or not. If something is wrong, you will probably notice it and you should share it with your doctor as soon as possible.

5) How often should I go for a check-up?

It is always safe to visit your gynaecologist at least once a year. If you have sex, it is recommended that you use protection to avoid contracting a sexually transmitted disease or infection (STD or STI).

6) Should I take the fertility test?

Depending on your age and your personal condition, you might want to check whether or not you are still fertile. This is an easy test, all you have to do is ask your gynecologists through gynecologists consultation.

7.) Pregnant or trying to conceive-

Please inform your Doctor about your intention to conceive. Your doctor can give you the most personal advice related to your planned pregnancy and conception. A lot of factors could be the reason for the delay in pregnancy. The best way is to overcome this problem is by seeking the advice of a medical professional through gynaecologist consultation and by following the same. It is therefore important to take charge of your health and seek answers to such difficult or “embarrassing” questions either personally or via online gynaecologist consultation.

Talk to the best team of fertility experts today for all your pregnancy and fertility-related queries.

(+234) 909 888 9013, 9098889015

STD & Infertility

The relation between STD & Infertility-

The consequences of contacting an STD are several, which in some cases can cause fertility problems. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are often asymptomatic.

Can STDs cause infertility in males too?

In  women, they can be affected doubly as the bacteria may settle in the mucus produced by the cervix and thereby reducing sperm motility, or it may also affect the patency and function of the fallopian tubes. But when it comes to men, they are also not free from possible future problems as well, as microorganisms can adhere to sperm, thereby affecting their quality and quantity. The STD that cause a higher rate of infertility are Chlamydia, caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, and Gonorrhea, caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

The Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) that can make you infertile!

1.) Chlamydia

Chlamydia is one of the common STIs in women, especially in young women. Painful urination is one of the symptoms, but the disease is most often asymptomatic. Chlamydia can affect the genitals, urinary tract, and eyes. If left untreated, it can lead to blindness, infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, and ectopic pregnancy. It also poses a high risk to the health of infants born to infected mothers. Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics, but be careful, repetitive infections are common.

2.) Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea If left untreated, it can cause inflammation of the uterus and lead to infertility. A pregnant woman can also pass the infection on to her child. Also, infection in pregnant women can lead to premature labor and delivery as well as permanent blindness in the newborn.

3.) Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is another infection that can make it difficult to father children. In this case, we have to keep in mind that the immune system itself is able to overcome the infection after a few months or years (in many cases). When the lesions are extensive, the production of cervical mucus may be affected. There are more than 100 types of HPV, of which at least 14 are cancer-causing which are also known as high risk type.

4.)HIV or AIDS

HIV is another disease that can have a significant impact on fertility. In the case of women, it causes an increased risk of cervical abnormalities or early menopause, while in men (STD infertility males) it has been detected by the presence of orchitis (inflammation of the testes), hypogonadism (decreased production of hormones), oligozoospermia or azoospermia (decrease or absence of sperm in semen).

5.) Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is a common curable STI. The organism Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that lives in the lower genital tract and is usually transmitted during sexual intercourse. It is problematic because it can infest areas not covered by the condom, which therefore does not fully protect against infection. People of both sexes can get trichomoniasis. Symptoms vary from person to person, but many people who are infected do not know they have it and are therefore at risk of transmitting the infection. Caution is a safe mother: Trichomoniasis can increase the risk of contracting or transmitting other STIs such as HIV, and pregnant women with them are at risk of having premature babies and low birth weight.

6.) Syphilis

Syphilis is manifested by the appearance of ulcers, called chancres on the genitals. If left untreated, syphilis can cause serious and permanent problems (brain damage, blindness, infertility or paralysis). Many people with syphilis do not have symptoms and do not know they are infected. A mother can pass syphilis to her child during pregnancy or childbirth. This disease is the second leading cause of stillbirth worldwide and can lead to other adverse childbirth outcomes such as neonatal death, birth defects, prematurity and low birth weight. Take these 6 STDs seriously. Get tested and treated quickly if you are at risk or have any of the related symptoms. Don’t let these STDs be a reason behind your infertility.

Misconceptions about pregnancy

Here are some helpful pregnancy myths busted along with their reality.

1) Round belly for a girl and a pointed belly for a boy: False!

Most pregnant women must have heard of it at least once. This belief has no scientific basis or proof, because while it may be true that the shape of a pregnant woman’s belly can vary depending on several factors, the sex of the baby is not one of them.

2) The full moon promotes childbirth: False!

Several studies have been carried out on this subject and claim that births are not more numerous on full moon nights. There are many pregnancy food myths too, but, not all the pregnancy food myths are a reality.

3) Each pregnancy costs the mother one tooth less: False!

It is true that at a certain time, pregnancy could have an effects on the teeth of the mother-to-be.  But dentistry was not what it is today. Added to this, the fatigue of pregnancy, and therefore very poor dental hygiene, you will necessarily get a fewer teeth. However, this belief is absolutely irrelevant today.

4) Baby’s hair is the reason for heartburn: Wrong!

There is also another version of this pregnancy myth that claims that the more heartburn a mother has, the more hair her baby will have. The truth is, heartburn has absolutely nothing to do with the hair of your baby.

5) It is possible to know the sex of the baby with a pendulum: Wrong!

In many families, this is a rite: passing a pendulum over the belly of the pregnant woman to guess the sex of the baby. Even if this myth allows you to have a good time and make family predictions about the unborn baby’s sex, it is absolutely not an exact science!

6) You must not cross your legs at the risk of the baby’s cord strangling him/her: False!

It is indeed sometimes not advisable to cross your legs while pregnant, but for the simple reason that it can cause blood circulation problems.

7) It is possible to determine the sex of the baby thanks to his heart rate: False!

The myth suggests that if a baby has a heart rate above 140 beats/min then it’s a girl, but if it’s 139 beats/min or less, then it’s a boy. But a recent study showed that the heart rate absolutely cannot determine the sex of the child.

8) If the mother has pain in her navel, the baby is playing with the cord: False!

If the navel is indeed the scar of the umbilical cord, it has nothing to do with that of her child. Even if it is proven that the baby can feel certain emotions of his mother in utero, this myth is nevertheless false.

9) The second pregnancy is noticed more quickly: True!

Since the muscles of the stomach and uterus have already been stretched since the first time, a second pregnancy will be seen more quickly. Psychologists are also of the opinion that the body’s memory also plays a role, since it remembers the first pregnancy and its effects, and will therefore reproduce them more easily.

10) The second childbirth is easier than the first: True!

It is true, the labor time is generally shorter, since the passage has already been made. In addition, there is also the psychological dimension which plays a very important role. This article has all the pregnancy myths debunked & explained with their realities.

Frequently Asked Questions about In Vitro Fertilization

You may have many doubts about the IVF process. They range from the side effects of the stimulation to when you need to give yourself the treatment, to questions about how to relieve the stress experienced during this time or what type of vitamins to take. El-rapha fertility experts and team will guide you through this process and point you in the right direction at all times.In addition, we provide you some key points such as, advice on IVF treatment, the practice on how to put the estrogen patches during stimulation or if necessary, to do an ultrasound of the endometrium before an embryo transfer. There are too many questions about IVF that patients have in their minds.

Here are some of common IVF FAQs ?
Below are the IVF frequently asked questions which patients usually ask our fertility experts at El-rapha Hospital.

1. When is the right time to start treatment for in vitro fertilization (IVF)?

Your doctor will explain the best time to start treatment after the initial consultation, examination and blood tests.
Your clinician may start your treatment on the 2nd or 3rd day of your period.

2. How much does the IVF treatment cost?
The cost of IVF at El-rapha or anywhere across the globe is initially dependent on the infertility workup of the couple.
Hence it varies from person to person. This is one of the most common IVF frequently asked questions.

3. Can we have our tests done at a nearby clinic as we live in a far rural area?
As long as we are in close contact with the clinician having your tests done at a clinic near you, then it is feasible.

4. How many times can we try IVF?
A couple can try as many times as they want, as long as they can handle the costs.

5. What makes IVF an expensive treatment?
This method requires highly qualified personnel and the latest technology equipment’s and facility. The equipment and materials used for an IVF lab are all imported and expensive. In addition, most of the materials used are disposable and in single use format.

6. How long does the Egg collection/ pickup procedure take?
The time duration of this procedure completely upon the number of follicles that are required to be aspirated. Normally, it takes about 5-10 minutes.

7. We have heard that Egg collection process is painful, is it true?
The procedure is not painful, but may cause mild discomfort. At our clinic, we use mild anesthesia administered through an IV route which relieves discomfort. Stressed patients usually ask this FAQ about IVF.

8. How long do I need to rest after the embryo transfer procedure?
Resting 15-20 minutes after the transfer is usually sufficient. We suggest not to do heavy exercise and walking for long distances during this time period. Women who work at an office can work the next day to resume daily activities.

9. Can someone who does not have sperm have children?
There are procedures for men who do not have sperms in their semen. Such procedures include collecting tissue samples directly from the testes in different ways depending on the condition. If sperm is found in these tissue samples, then ICSI can be used to inseminate the eggs.

10. How successful is the IVF treatment?
Success rates strongly depend on the age of the patient, their condition and the treatment used. This IVF FAQ concerns every IVF patient a lot but at El-rapha Hospital, you are free to ask all the questions you want to ask and clear your mind before starting your infertility treatment.

 

Talk to our fertility experts  today for all your pregnancy and fertility-related queries.

Call now: (+234) 909 888 9013,  9098889015

MALE INFERTILITY

MALE INFERTILITY

Infertility is failure to get pregnant even after twelve months of unprotected sexual intercourse. Many factors can leads to male infertility, such as anatomical, genetic, and environmental causes. In many cases, the underlying cause of infertility cannot be determined. You need to consider undergoing formal assessments and tests for better clinical diagnosis.

Male Infertility Symptoms

You may experience one or more of the following symptoms:

• Reduced sexual desire
• Difficulty in maintaining an erection
• Pain or swelling in the testicle area
• Difficulty in ejaculation
• Decreased facial and body hair, and abnormal breast growth or hormonal abnormality

Visit El-rapha hospital to get yourself evaluated for these symptoms. Sometimes there are no apparent signs and symptoms of male infertility. You may not experience any issues with sexual activity, erection or ejaculation, and the only symptom you will have is the inability to conceive a child.

Male Infertility Problems/Causes

Male fertility includes producing enough healthy sperms, their transportation with semen, and it also needs the right temperature of the scrotum to carry healthy sperms.

Some of the leading causes of infertility are:

Sperm disorders

The most common problem associated with male infertility is sperm disorders. These are:

• Decreased sperm count

• Inability to produce sperms 

• Sperms may not be grown fully

• The failure of the sperms to move the right way

Sperm disorders can be hereditary or can be the result of bad lifestyle choices. Drug usage, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, emotional stress, and depression can result in sperm related disorders. Also, any congenital disability or damage to the reproductive system may result in low sperm count.

Varicoceles

Varicoceles are swollen veins of the scrotum that causes infertility. This results due to the blockage of blood flow to the scrotum, leading to difficulty in temperature regulation. The warm temperature does not favor the production of sperms resulting in low sperm count.

Varicocele can be treated, which helps to improve sperm number and function, and this may also improve the potential outcome of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF.

Immunity related infertility

Though it is not a common cause of infertility, sometimes your body creates antibodies that attack your own sperms. These antibodies affect the functionality of sperms, which makes it difficult for them to fertilize the egg.

Ejaculation issues

During orgasm, if semen enters the bladder instead of going out through the penis, it is called retrograde ejaculation. Various health problems can cause retrograde ejaculation, such as surgery, medication, spinal injuries, or diabetes. Generally, in retrograde ejaculation sperm count is normal and can be retrieved and used for assisted reproductive techniques.

Blockage of sperm transporting tubules

Some defects can block the tubes that carry sperms. This blockage can occur due to repeated infections, injury due to surgery, swelling, or it can be an inherited condition. This blockage can prevent the sperm from leaving the body for fertilization.

Hormonal Imbalance

Any hormonal abnormality affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenal glands can cause infertility. The inability to produce an adequate amount of testosterone can lead to a reduced number of healthy sperms.

Chromosomal defects

An inherited disorder can result in abnormal development of male reproductive organs. Some of the genetic syndromes causing infertility are Klinefelter’s syndrome, Kallmann’s syndrome, or cystic fibrosis.

Medications

Certain medications can impair the function, structure, and production of sperms. Long term use of steroids, cancer medication (chemotherapy), antifungal medications, and medications advised for arthritis and depression can cause infertility.

Environmental causes

Overexposure to industrial chemicals, heavy metals, or radiation may contribute to your reduced sperm count. Increased scrotal temperature due to tight underpants can also be the reason for infertility.

Lifestyle choices

Tobacco smoking or drinking alcohol can lead to erectile dysfunction or decreased sperm production. Usage of drugs like marijuana or cocaine can reduce the quality and production of your sperms. Emotional stress and depression can lead to sexual dysfunction. Excessive weight or obesity can also be the reason for infertility.

Male Infertility Diagnosis

The diagnosis of male infertility can be a complicated process. Getting yourself evaluated from a physician, specialized in male infertility can help you with better diagnosis. The method of diagnosis starts with history and physical examination.

History and Physical examination

Your health care provider will take a detailed history of your health and any previous surgeries. You will be asked about any childhood diseases, current health problems, any medications you are taking, which might be causing infertility. You will also be assessed for exposure to any environmental or lifestyle-related causes leading to infertility. You will be asked if you are facing any difficulties with sexual functioning. Physical examination includes examining your reproductive organs. Here you will be assessed for varicocele or other physical abnormalities.

Semen analysis

This is a routine lab test in which semen is collected in a sterile tube, and the sample is studied. The quality of the sperm is analyzed by studying sperm volume, sperm count, movement, concentration, and structure. Low sperms or no sperms indicate blockage of the ejaculatory duct, which can be corrected through surgery.

Testicular biopsy

This test is done when your semen analysis shows low sperm count or no sperms. A needle biopsy is taken to check for the presence of healthy sperms. This helps to diagnose if there is any blockage, and also these sperms can be used in the process of assisted reproduction.

Hormone evaluation

Testosterone and other hormones are responsible for the production of healthy sperms. Hormone evaluation also helps the doctor to rule out if you are suffering from any other underlying health problem.

Male Infertility treatment

Treatment of male infertility mainly depends on the possible causes. Many issues can be treated with medication and surgery. This helps in reversing the cause of infertility and achieving conception naturally.

Nonsurgical procedures

Infertility caused due to abnormalities of hormones, immunity, retrograde ejaculation, or genital tract infection can be corrected by using medications. If the drugs don’t seem to help, you can opt for assisted reproductive techniques (ART’s) to achieve conception.

Surgical procedures

Condition like varicocele can be treated by minor outpatient surgery called varicocelectomy. Any blockage causing azoospermia can also be corrected using minor surgeries.

Treatment options for unknown causes of infertility

Sometimes the cause of infertility may not be known or is non-specific. During such conditions, an experienced doctor can help you to decide which treatment can work for you. With the latest developments, Assisted Reproductive Treatment (ART) offers powerful treatment options. These treatments have made it possible to attain pregnancy even when men have low sperm count.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

In this method, sperms are directly injected into the female partner’s uterus during ovulation. This method often works for low sperm count or in conditions like retrograde ejaculation.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In this procedure, sperms are mixed with eggs of the female partner in a Petri dish in a lab. This allows retrieval of matured eggs and their fertilization. After 3 to 5 days, fertilized eggs are placed back in the uterus. IVF can be the best treatment option in men with severe oligospermia.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

It is a form of IVF used in the treatment of severe male infertility. In this, a single sperm is injected into an egg through a tiny needle. The fertilized egg is then transferred to the female partner’s uterus.

Final Words

You may find it challenging to accept male infertility. As mentioned above in many cases, male infertility can be treated. Consulting a skilled infertility doctor and getting evaluated can help you to overcome infertility. Right diagnosis and treatment can make it possible to achieve pregnancy and take home a healthy baby.

 

Visitor information

To contact a patient or for patient room information, call +234 806 502 8060 , +234 806 502 8060

Visiting hours

General: 8 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. Family members with an ID badge have 24-hour access to the hospital.

Address

  • El-Rapha Hospitals and Diagnostics Plot #930 Salihu Iliyasu Street, Life Camp, Abuja, Nigeria.

IVF PROCESS- A STEP BY STEP GUIDE

IVF PROCESS- A STEP BY STEP GUIDE

At Elrapha Hospital, we fulfill the parenthood dreams of infertile couples with various infertility treatment processes including IVF, with the help of advanced technology, personalized care and closed working chamber technique, which has significantly improved the outcome of IVF cycles and hence, helping us in bringing little miracles to the aspiring couples. IVF treatment is a series of procedures. The steps for IVF treatment process include-

1. Initial Consultation

Your first step towards a happier life should be meeting up with an IVF specialist. During this appointment, our specialist will review all the medical information you have provided including the previous tests or treatments undergone. Once all the information has been discussed, the specialist will recommend the best way to proceed. This consultation initiates the IVF Process.

2. Testing and Ovary Stimulation

After all the required tests done in the initial phase of IVF process, the stimulation process will start on the first day of your monthly cycle. Unlike normal, you will be given medications for 8-14 days to encourage the follicles in your ovaries to produce more eggs. Most common hormones used for stimulation are Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone. To time the ‘trigger injection’ perfectly, you will be tracked towards the end of the stimulation phase. This shot gets the eggs ready for ovulation hence, completing the 2nd step of IVF Procedure.

3. Egg retrieval

In this step of IVF treatment process, the eggs are collected from your ovaries. This procedure takes about 20-30 minutes while you are asleep. Your specialist will use the latest ultrasound technology to guide a needle into each ovary. In egg retrieval process, the average number of eggs collected is 8-15.

4. Sperm Retrieval

Sperm retrieval is done on the same day as that of egg retrieval if you are a couple planning to use fresh sperm in an IVF treatment procedure. In case of frozen or donor eggs, the specialists will keep them ready in the lab. The sperm is selected on the basis of 4 different levels of quality. A perfectly healthy sperm is neither too fat nor too thin. Hence, the best sperms among all are selected for further fertilization.

5. Fertilization

In this step of IVF Procedure, the scientists will now use powerful microscopes to find the eggs from the fluid so they can be taken out of it. Then both eggs and sperm are fertilized in a dish in vitro.

6. Embryo Development

Fertilization of the egg and the sperm results into a zygote which further develops into an embryo. Then the embryo is placed in a special incubator where the conditions for growth and development are the same as a mother’s womb. Our scientists keep an eye on the embryos over 5-6 days. In this infertility treatment process, implanting embryos at the blastocyst stage inside the uterus boosts the chances of a successful pregnancy.

7. Embryo Transfer

It is a very simple step of IVF treatment procedure. The patients need not to be given anesthesia and they can be in their senses completely. Here, the scientist prepares the embryo by placing it in a catheter (small tube). This process is carried out by an expert only because it requires precision and zero disturbances. Hence, he will place the catheter through the cervix into your uterus.

8. Final Pregnancy Test

Two weeks post your embryo transfer; your specialist will conduct a blood test to measure your hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone level. When hCG is detected in your bloodstream, it is a positive sign of pregnancy. Also, it is the final step of the IVF Procedure and the 1st step towards parenthood.

Anniversary discount in this month of February

Take advantage of our Anniversary discount in this month of February!
– 50% off on Registration
– 25% off on Consultations
– 20% off on our wellness packages
All you have to do is walk into our facility from the first of February and you are eligible for this massive discount!
For more Inquiries call us on 09098889015
This is our way of saying thank you for your continuous patronage, love and support since we opened our doors on February 2, 2017.
*Offer Valid all through February, 2021
Terms and Conditions apply.

When is the best time of the month to try for a baby?

Almost every woman at some point of time in her life wants to become a mother. Motherhood is a symbol of undiluted love. It is often seen that women have to make huge sacrifices in their respective careers to be able to start a family. However, we should also remember that every lady has a right to excel in her career no matter how long it takes.

She should not be held captive by her advancing age- to choose pregnancy over career. She deserves full freedom to achieve her career goals before making the life- changing decision of having a child. So let us understand today what is the best time to conceive.

We often come across couples at our clinic who ask if it is the right time to conceive? is it too late? Can I wait a little more?

Firstly when is the

We all have to accept that men and women are biologically different. A male can have normal spermatogenesis that is production and maturation of normal sperms even till 65 to 70 years of age, but a female has a fixed reserve of eggs at the time of birth. As her age increases the quantity of her eggs goes on decreasing. So, the quantity and quality of eggs of a female are the best when she is 21 to 30 years old. After 30 years, the quantity of eggs starts decreasing at a slightly faster rate. And after 35 years it’s not only the quantity but also the quality of eggs that gets affected.

So the ideal time /the best time for a woman to conceive is between 21 to 30 years as it is during these years that the quantity and quality of eggs is at the best level.

But does it mean that after 30 years you cannot conceive ? Absolutely not

Today we have an option of infertility prevention or in other words fertility preservation wherein you can freeze your eggs and store them at a younger age when they are of good quality and you can use them at a later age when you plan to have a baby. By freezing your eggs you are actually buying time so that you can have children when you actually want them.

Best time to conceive a baby

Now , many of us are not aware of the body processes involved in conceiving.

Let me explain them to you –

As you all know that a normal female has a uterus and two fallopian tubes and two ovaries. Every month follicles get selected in one of the ovaries out of which one follicle dominates and ruptures after it grows to a particular size.

When the follicle ruptures at the time of ovulation, an egg is released which travels to the fallopian tube and waits for the sperm. If at the same time the sperms swim up till the egg in the fallopian tube, one of the sperm fertilises the egg and an embryo is formed. This embryo travels in 5 to 6 days to the uterus where it gets implanted and the woman becomes pregnant.

Now let’s discuss the best time to conceive during a menstrual cycle.
If you are trying to conceive naturally it is important that you know your menstrual cycle.

At Elrapha Hospital, our fertility experts are keen to help and resolve all your queries related to infertility or IVF. You can book your appointment for a consultation now.

Talk to the best team of fertility experts in the country today for all your pregnancy and fertility-related queries.

Call now (+234)90998889015

MISCARRIAGES AND INFERTILITY

Losing a baby is a devastating experience. No matter how early or late into the pregnancy a woman is, the loss of a child hits incredibly hard. Recurrent miscarriages can be confusing. There is no evidence that suggests that a woman cannot go on to have a normal successful pregnancy after one, two or even three miscarriages. It is advisable to consult a fertility doctor if you have experienced a miscarriage especially if it has happened more than once. Miscarriages are sometimes caused by underlying health issues. If these issues are not treated, it could prevent future pregnancies.

       A miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy before the 20th week. Over a million cases are recorded in Nigeria each year. Some women may miscarry before they have any clue that they are pregnant. Miscarriages do not cause infertility, but a woman that has miscarried once may experience another miscarriage especially if she has an underlying health issue.

       There are two main types of miscarriages: early miscarriage and late miscarriage.

       Early miscarriage occurs during the first trimester, i.e., within the first 12 weeks of the pregnancy. Most miscarriages occur during this period. The most common cause of early miscarriage is chromosomal abnormalities with either the sperm or the egg.

       Late miscarriage happens after the first trimester (after 12 weeks), but before week 20. It happens during the second trimester of the pregnancy.


What causes a miscarriage?

  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • Uterine or cervix abnormalities
  • PCOS
  • Bacterial infections etc.

       Most early miscarriages may occur without any physical symptoms. Abdominal cramps, abdominal pains and vaginal bleeding are some symptoms that may indicate a possible miscarriage. It is important to note that these symptoms sometimes occur during a normal pregnancy and do not necessarily mean a miscarriage is inevitable. It is important to report any uncomfortable feeling or symptoms to your healthcare provider. Sudden loss of common early signs of pregnancy, for example nausea and tenderness of breasts are also possible signs of a miscarriage.

       If a woman has a health condition that is known to cause to miscarriage, very little can be done to prevent miscarriage in the first trimester. In the second and third trimester, there are higher chances of sustaining the pregnancy.

       You can make a few lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of miscarriages.

  • Always go for regular pre natal check up.
  • Avoid smoking, drugs and alcohol.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Avoid being overweight or underweight.
  • Exercise regularly
  • Limit your caffeine intake

WHAT IS SECONDARY INFERTILITY?

      Secondary infertility is the inability to conceive after giving birth to at least one child before without any medical intervention. Secondary infertility can be very confusing. Most people believe that being able to conceive once or more automatically means that they would not need any help getting pregnant again. A study published in 2018 stated that secondary infertility is more common that primary fertility (where pregnancy has not occurred at all). Couples who experience secondary fertility are less likely to visit a fertility clinic or consult a fertility doctor because they believe that if they keep trying, the woman will conceive, after all they have done it before. 

Secondary infertility can be caused by the same factors responsible for primary infertility. These could be:

  • Impaired sperm production, function or delivery
  • Damage to the fallopian tube
  • Ovulation problems
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Endometriosis

       Health problems that were not present during the first pregnancy could lead to secondary infertility, such as an underlying fertility problem that has worsened over time. Age is also a major cause of secondary infertility. Fertility decreases with age. If a woman has her first child in her mid 30s and is trying to have her second child in her late 30s, the chances of secondary infertility occurring are significantly higher than those of a younger woman.

       Treatments for secondary fertility are the same for primary fertility. They include;

  • Fertility drugs and medication. This is usually the first stage of treatment for most fertility cases. In most cases, both primary and secondary infertility can be treated with fertility drugs and injections prescribed by a fertility doctor. If the underlying problem is more serious, the other forms of assisted reproductive techniques are recommended.
  • In Vitro Fertilization. This is the most common of all assisted reproductive techniques. IVF involves fertilizing the sperm and egg in lab and implanting the fertilized embryo into the uterus of the mother or surrogate.

Other ARTs includes; Intra Uterine Insemination, In Vitro Maturation, Testicular Sperm Aspiration, etc.

       Secondary infertility can be mentally stressful and draining. Most couples won’t think of visiting a fertility clinic when they experience it. It is advisable to speak to a fertility expert if you have been trying for a year (for women under the age of 35) or for six months (for women above the age of 35) to conceive, if you have had other children in the past. Delaying seeking for help could make the underlying issue worsen. It is perfectly okay to seek a little help in achieving your dream family.   

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